New Hope for Snake/Columbia's Wild Salmon and Steelhead: It's Time to 'Free the Snake' and Restore Endangered Salmon!


In May 2016, the U.S. District Court in Oregon rejected the government's plan for operating federal dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers because the plan  – the 2014 Biological Opinion (or “BiOp”)  – failed to protect endangered wild salmon and steelhead.  The Court concluded the federal agencies responsible for the plan (NOAA Fisheries, the Corps of  Engineers, Bureau of Reclamation, and Bonneville Power Administration) violated both the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).

The Court  said “[f]or more than 20 years, . . . the federal agencies have ignored [prior court opinions] and have continued to focus essentially on the same approach to saving the listed species — . . .  [t]hese efforts have already cost billions of dollars, yet they are failing.”

Three different federal judges over two decades have now rejected five consecutive plans to lawfully manage the Columbia/Snake River dams. ESA-listed salmon continue to face a high risk of extinction. In the federal judiciary’s words, “the system literally cries out for a major overhaul.

This ruling swept aside the government’s long-standing strategy to avoid meaningful changes to the existence and operations of federal dams on the Columbia and Snake rivers. Judge Simon’s strongly-worded opinion found multiple substantive violations of the ESA and procedural violations of the NEPA. The Court 2016 order requires the agencies’ next plan (due 2018) to substantially strengthen the all-important jeopardy standard, address climate impacts on fish, reduce its heavy reliance on habitat restoration and finally confront the significant salmon mortality caused by federal dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

To address the NEPA violation, federal agencies must began work in Fall 2016 with Scoping/Public Input - the first step toward producing an EIS that fully, fairly and transparently analyzes the latest scientific and economic information on Columbia/Snake salmon and dams and carefully consider all recovery alternatives – including the costs, benefits and tradeoffs of lower Snake River dam removal. Keeping the agencies honest and on track in this process presents a major challenge for advocates, and will require vigilance and oversight by us, media and our elected leaders in the Northwest and in Washington D.C.

In July 2016, the Court required (1) the National Marine Fisheries Service to produce a new lawful Columbia Basin Salmon Biological Opinion by Dec. 2018; and (2) the “Action Agencies” (BPA, Army Corps, Bureau of Reclamation) to produce a lawful NEPA-compliant DEIS by March 2020 and FEIS by March 2021.


scientists.ltr copyScientists send letter to Northwest policymakers affirming the benefits of “spill” – water releases over federal Columbia Basin dams – to provide critical interim help for endangered wild salmon and steelhead until a lawful plan is developed.

August 16, 2017


David Cannamela, M.S., , 208-890-1319

Rod Sando, M.S., , 503-507-5386

Boise, ID – Today, 46 natural resource scientists delivered a letter to members of Congress and Governors in Northwest states highlighting the well established and empirically demonstrated evidence supporting the benefits of “spill” – water releases over the tops of federal dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers during the juvenile out-migration to the Pacific Ocean during the spring and summer months. Spill has proven to be one of the most effective immediate dam management options to help improve the survival of young salmon and increase adult returns in the years that follow.

The letter can be viewed here:

Dave Cannamela, retired fisheries biologist (Boise, Idaho): “Spill is without a doubt the most effective interim measure we can implement to help maintain critically endangered salmon, steelhead, and lamprey populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.  While spill is only an interim measure it is a very important one because it buys us time to work collectively to develop a durable, effective, long-term solution.  Everyone will benefit when salmon and the ecosystem, economy, and cultures they support are restored.”



Friday evening, Sept. 8 and Saturday, Sept. 9 2017

Chief Timothy State Park, Clarkston, WA

1freethesnake.cutoutLast year more than 400 people from throughout the Pacific Northwest came together on water in support of the return of a free-flowing lower Snake River.  This year, river, salmon and orca advocates, tribal members, anglers, and others will gather again on the river to Free the Snake.

Here’s a chance to experience the lower Snake River for yourself and learn more about why removing four dams is so critical to restoring salmon, orcas, lamprey; and why it is necessary to honor treaties with Native American tribes.  These four dams impede salmon from reaching the largest piece of intact salmon habitat left in the lower 48, thousands of miles of pristine river habitat across millions of acres in Idaho, northeast Oregon and southeast Washington. Meanwhile, the benefits these dams have declined dramatically while their costs to both salmon and taxpayers have grown.  


Spokesman Review Guest Opinion: Bill would rubber-stamp salmon failure

Sockeye in RiverBy Josh Mills, August 11, 2017

As I read John Francisco’s Aug. 5 op-ed (“Legislation saves salmon, hydrosystem”), a question came to mind: If the federal agencies had told us 20 years ago that they would spend $16 billion of our money – as ratepayers and taxpayers – on a scheme claiming to protect wild salmon in the Columbia and Snake rivers, but fail to recover a single one of the 13 endangered runs, wouldn’t we have demanded a different plan?

That’s why fishing businesses, sport fishing and conservation groups, the state of Oregon and the Nez Perce Tribe all applauded federal Judge Michael Simon’s ruling in 2016, rejecting the government’s latest plan to protect endangered salmon. Simon noted that the Federal Columbia River Power System “cries out for a new approach and new thinking.” He strongly urged the agencies to consider lower Snake River dam removal as an alternative.


Lewiston Tribune: Seriously stressed steelhead

Worst-ever start to season as low flows, "the blob," voracious sea lions take toll
Steelhead are setting a record at Lower Granite Dam and it's not a good one.

SteeheadClearwaterAugust 11, 2017

By Eric Barker

The run's performance is so poor that fisheries managers are considering restrictions to upcoming seasons.

The dam about 30 miles west of Clarkston on the Snake River has never seen a worse start to the steelhead run. Between June 1 and Wednesday, only 393 steelhead have been counted climbing the dam's fish ladder. For comparison, the 10-year average is more than 5,100. Last year, when the A run of steelhead collapsed, more than 3,400 steelhead had been counted there in the same time frame.

You have to go back decades to find anything comparable. In 1990, the count through Aug. 7 was 623.

It's not much better at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. There, about 30,000 steelhead have been counted. Only 1943 and 1938, the dam's first year of operation, were worse. It was similarly bad in 1941, 1942 and 1944.



Business.TY.ltr.Gov.Brown.8.2017Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Chris Daughters, owner, Caddis Fly Angling Shop, Eugene, (541) 342-7005
Bob Rees, Bob Rees’ Fishing Guide Service, Oregon City, (503) 812-9036
Aaron Altshuler, Patagonia, Portland, (518) 727-6412

70 sportfishing and outdoor recreational businesses send Governor Kate Brown letter of appreciation for Oregon’s steady leadership to protect and restore healthy, fishable populations of endangered Columbia and Snake River Basin wild salmon and steelhead

Portland, OR – Today, 70 Oregon-based recreational fishing and outdoor-based companies delivered a letter to Oregon Governor Kate Brown thanking her for her commitment - and the State of Oregon’s ongoing leadership – to protect and restore endangered wild salmon and steelhead in the Columbia and Snake River Basin.  

The letter can be downloaded here.

The fishing and outdoor recreation-based businesses sent their letter “to express our appreciation for your leadership and Oregon’s ongoing commitment to protect and restore abundant, harvestable, self-sustaining populations of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia and Snake rivers and their tributaries.” The letter states that “[t]he success – or the failure - of our businesses is linked tightly to the survival and recovery of our most iconic Northwest fish. For our businesses it’s pretty simple: more fish means more fishing. Salmon abundance leads directly to increased sales, manufacturing, guiding, and resident and non-resident travel, tourism and spending.”


Idaho Statesman: A changing electrical grid may make Snake River dams expendable — and help save salmon

dam.photoBy Rocky Barker, August 04, 2017

Editor’s note: The Northwest has yet to figure out a sustainable plan to save imperiled Columbia salmon. This is part two of a series exploring whether salmon can ultimately survive.

PASCO, Wash. The fate of the Northwest salmon may be decided by the way you use your heater and your air conditioner.

In the near future, the U.S. electric grid will be able to digitally manage the vast Northwest hydroelectric network in a way unimaginable just a few years ago. With consent from customers, it will be able to adjust the heaters and air conditioners of millions of homes and buildings, or tap into the batteries of electric cars or other smart appliances.

It’s a revolutionary change for the Northwest economy, the energy market, the Columbia Basin dam system and the salmon that migrate through it.

The four dams of the Snake River in Washington are less valuable now due to a power surplus caused by wildly successful energy-efficiency programs, cheap natural gas, and rapidly growing wind and solar energy options.

Read the full story here.

More Articles...

  1. Jul 31, 2017 - For Immediate Release: Sawyer Oars, Artists & Save Our Wild Salmon join forces in a new alliance
  2. Jul 31, 2017 - Idaho Statesman Guest Opinion: Past 20 years have strengthened the case for removing four Snake River dams
  3. Jul 31, 2017 - LMT: IDFG scrambling to fill hatchery quotas of spring chinook
  4. Jul 20, 2017 - Idaho Statesman: Should Snake dams be removed?
  5. Jul 17, 2017 - Eugene Register-Guard Editorial: A damming proposal - Congressional bill is not a good option
  6. Jul 15, 2017 - LMT: Steelhead numbers even lower than forecast
  7. Jul 10, 2017 - Lewiston Tribune: Who is McMorris Rodgers looking after?
  8. Jul 10, 2017 - Idaho Statesman: Northwest Salmon, the stuff of legends, still struggle to survive
  9. Jul 05, 2017 - Seattle Times: At Elwha River, forests, fish and flowers where there were dams and lakes
  10. Jul 04, 2017 - Lewiston Tribune: McMorris Rodgers seeks new life for salmon plan
  11. Jun 30, 2017 - FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: NW business and conservation leaders oppose bill to overturn 2016 federal court decision and push imperiled salmon closer to extinction.
  12. Jun 29, 2017 - Idaho Statesman Guest Opinion: The Snake and salmon: People are feeling the pain of a river lost
  13. Jun 20, 2017 - The Drake: Columbia Conundrum
  14. Jun 13, 2017 - Lewiston Morning Tribune: Spring chinook fishing closed in Clearwater Basin
  15. May 29, 2017 - Moscow-Pullman Daily News: Our View: Can lawyers just try to swim with the salmon?
  16. May 26, 2017 - Lewiston Morning Tribune: Fisheries managers move to protect B-run
  17. May 22, 2017 - Idaho Statesman: Saving Idaho's salmon: Nature again turns against returning fish that already face long odds
  18. May 19, 2017 - CBB: Spill Advocates, Federal Agencies Agree To Status Conference Schedule, Protocol In Salmon BiOP Case
  19. May 18, 2017 - For Immediate Release: 31 Groups Send Letter to WA and OR members of Congress re: Columbia Basin salmon recovery
  20. May 17, 2017 - LMT: Anemic return leads managers to close salmon fishing on Snake
  21. May 15, 2017 - CBB: Spring Chinook Return Had A Little Bounce Then Back To Low Numbers; Insufficient Data For Run Update
  22. May 15, 2017 - CBB: Heading Into Summer Water Supply Forecasts Across Basin Above Normal; One Of Wettest Years
  23. May 09, 2017 - Tri-Cities Herald: 3 horseback riders stop in Kennewick on journey to save salmon
  24. May 09, 2017 - Seattle Times: Epic snow and rain help salmon now, but conflicts with hydropower lie ahead on Columbia River
  25. Apr 25, 2017 - Oregonian: Idaho horseback riders on salmon trek pass through Portland
  26. Apr 20, 2017 - NWPR/EarthFix: Conservation Groups Ask To Stop Barging Sockeye Around Dams
  27. Mar 28, 2017 - OPB: Court Orders More Spill Over Columbia River Dams In 2018
  28. Mar 27, 2017 - FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Court Grants Increased 'Spill' to Aid Endangered Columbia/Snake River Salmon
  29. Mar 24, 2017 - KUOW: Northwest Tribes Say Salmon Recovery Is Requirement Based On Treaty Rights
  30. Mar 24, 2017 - CBB: Listed Steelhead Move Into New Habitat Created By Removal Of Obsolete Dam On Idaho's Potlatch River
  31. Mar 24, 2017 - Lewiston Tribune: Tribal, nontribal activists gather for environmental conference
  32. Mar 12, 2017 - Canoe & Kayak Guest Opinion: It’s Time To Remove The Lower Snake River Dams
  33. Mar 07, 2017 - Media Advisory
: Court Hearing in Portland on Columbia/Snake Salmon - 3.9.2017
  34. Feb 12, 2017 - Columbia/Snake Salmon NEPA Analysis Public Scoping Comment Period: A Summary
  35. Feb 12, 2017 - 400,000 citizens submit comments calling for removal of the lower Snake River dams
  36. Feb 05, 2017 - Patagonia Blog: The Cleanest Line - Free the Snake and Restore Salmon to Honor Treaty Right
  37. Feb 01, 2017 - FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: More than 250,000 Urge Feds to Do More to Save Salmon
  38. Jan 27, 2017 - KING5-TV: Snake River dams examined after decades of lawsuits
  39. Jan 19, 2017 - The Daily News: Removing dams could affect Cowlitz industry, electric rates
  40. Jan 19, 2017 - Many Dollars and Little Sense: Barging on the Lower Snake River
  41. Jan 11, 2017 - The Daily Astorian: Debate spills over the dams
  42. Jan 11, 2017 - Associated Press: Environmental groups want work halted on Snake River dams
  43. Jan 09, 2017 - FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Advocates Ask Court to Safeguard Salmon Ahead of Federal Planning Process
  44. Jan 02, 2017 - Oregonian: Shielded Native American sites thrust into debate over dams
  45. Dec 21, 2016 - For Immediate Release: New Report Highlights 10 Wildlife Conservation Priorities for the Trump Administration
  46. Dec 12, 2016 - Chinook Observer Editorial: Say no to standing by as salmon go extinct
  47. Dec 09, 2016 - Lewiston Morning Tribune Editorial: Fishy end run
  48. Dec 08, 2016 - Daily Astoria Editorial: ‘God Squad’ is the wrong idea for endangered species
  49. Dec 08, 2016 - Lewiston Morning Tribune: Irrigators want dams off endangered list
  50. Dec 07, 2016 - Idaho Statesman: Lower Snake River farmers seek federal ruling to allow Idaho salmon to go extinct
  51. Dec 07, 2016 - Idaho Statesman Guest Opinion: Stop studying the studies; breach dams and save the salmon
  52. Dec 07, 2016 - NW Fishletter #364: NWEC Panel Explores Replacing Power From Lower Snake River Dams (2)
  53. Dec 07, 2016 - Daily Astorian Guest Column: An opportunity to push for salmon recovery
  54. Dec 04, 2016 - Tri-City Herald Guest Opinion: Costly dams are harmful to salmon, tribes, and taxpayers
  55. Dec 03, 2016 - KING 5 TV: Future of Snake River dams under microscope
  56. Dec 03, 2016 - KNKX - 88.5 FM: Feds Discussing Snake River Dam Removal At Public Meeting In Seattle
  57. Dec 03, 2016 - The Columbian: Hearings next week on Columbia River salmon recovery
  58. Dec 03, 2016 - Idaho Statesman Editorial: Future of Idaho’s wild salmon can’t be sacrificed for any other interest
  59. Nov 15, 2016 - Spokesman Review: Big crowd turns out in Spokane to talk about Lower Snake River dams
  60. Nov 07, 2016 - Oregonian: Judge's order revives movement to remove Snake River dams
  61. Nov 05, 2016 - CBB: Science Review Of Salmon Survival Study: Snake River Fish Not Meeting Smolt-To-Adult Return Goals 

  62. Oct 29, 2016 - Seattle Times: Another Puget Sound orca dies; hope dim for her calf (2)
  63. Oct 24, 2016 - Spokesman Review: Pressure mounts on Lower Snake dams as fish runs sag
  64. Oct 23, 2016 - EarthFix: Taking Down Snake River Dams: It's Back On The Table
  65. Oct 23, 2016 - Spokesman Review Guest Opinion: We can restore salmon and have carbon-free energy
  66. Oct 18, 2016 - Seattle Times: Environmental effects of Columbia, Snake river dams scrutinized
  67. Oct 06, 2016 - The Seattle Weekly: Washington’s Big Dam Climate Nightmare
  68. Sep 30, 2016 - Call to Action: Court-Ordered Columbia-Snake Salmon NEPA Review: Phase 1 – Public Hearings this Fall!
  69. Sep 30, 2016 - For Immediate Release: Feds Announce Hearings for Public to Weigh in on Lower Snake River Dam Removal
  70. Sep 28, 2016 - Seattle Times: Hydropower isn’t carbon neutral after all, WSU researchers say
  71. Sep 15, 2016 - Lewiston Morning Tribune: Pro-salmon advocates plan to launch flotilla on Snake River on Saturday
  72. Aug 31, 2016 - For Immediate Release: 33 organizations ask federal agencies to commence NEPA public comment period after Jan. 1, 2017
  73. Aug 25, 2016 - Spokesman Review: About 35 percent of Snake River sockeye presumed dead
  74. Aug 17, 2016 - OPB Radio: Lawsuit Aims To Lower Columbia And Snake River Temperatures For Salmon
  75. Aug 17, 2016 - Spokesman Review: Hot water poses ongoing threat to Columbia River salmon, groups say
  76. Aug 17, 2016 - Spokesman Review: Hot water poses ongoing threat to Columbia River salmon, groups say (2)
  77. Aug 04, 2016 - Boise Weekly: Dams, Megawatts and Poached Salmon
  78. Aug 02, 2016 - Oregonian Guest Opinion: We can have a clean energy future and wild salmon
  79. Jul 04, 2016 - New York Times Editorial: The Salmon's Swim for Survival
  80. Jul 01, 2016 - CBB: Steps Taken To Cool Warming Lower Snake, Reduce Thermal Blocks As Large Basin Sockeye Return Heads Upstream
  81. Jun 27, 2016 - Oregonian Guest Opinion: Renewed optimism for salmon recovery
  82. Jun 25, 2016 - WAPO: Obama’s advisers just dismantled a key myth about the future of clean energy
  83. Jun 25, 2016 - CBB: BiOp Challengers Urge Court To Reject Feds’ Five-Year Timeline
  84. Jun 25, 2016 - CBB: Hot Summer. Will Sockeye Get Slammed Again?
  85. Jun 22, 2016 - Idaho Statesman Guest Opinion: Time for Congress to act on dams, Idaho sockeye
  86. Jun 21, 2016 - May 4, 2016 U.S. District Court Ruling: Background and Links
  87. Jun 12, 2016 - Guest Columnist Linwood Laughy: Snake Oil on the Lower Snake
  88. Jun 02, 2016 - Idaho Mountain Express Editorial: Stop dance of death
  89. Jun 02, 2016 - Idaho Mountain Express: Middle Fork could regain role as salmon nursery
  90. May 22, 2016 - New York Times Opinion: Unplugging the Colorado River
  91. May 22, 2016 - Crosscut: Judge: Failed salmon restoration has cost billions
  92. May 15, 2016 - Seattle Times Op-Ed: Federal court decision is a critical opportunity for salmon, energy and communities
  93. May 14, 2016 - Spokesman op-ed: Dam removal has new energy
  94. May 11, 2016 - East Oregonian Our view: Feds are running out of half measures
  95. May 11, 2016 - Lewiston Tribune editorial: What you hear today, you'll hear tomorrow
  96. May 04, 2016 - For Immediate Release: U.S. District Court sides with wild salmon and communities
  97. Apr 25, 2016 - Idaho Statesman: Warm Pacific continues to chop salmon numbers, affecting Idaho, Northwest
  98. Apr 14, 2016 - Seattle Times: Last year’s heat wave doomed nearly all Okanogan sockeye salmon
  99. Apr 01, 2016 - CBB: Army Corps Responds to Fish Advocates - Report underway on 2015 Columbia/Snake warm water, fish die-off
  100. Jan 05, 2016 - LMT: Idaho landscape could be safe haven for native fish
  101. Jan 04, 2016 - CBB: 2015 Smolt-To-Adult Return Data For Columbia/Snake Salmon, Steelhead
  102. Dec 09, 2015 - Idaho Statesman op-ed: Record salmon runs actually a decline
  103. Oct 28, 2015 - Scientists to Administrator Will Stelle: NOAA must act on climate change and salmon
  104. Oct 28, 2015 - Columbia Basin Bulletin: Preliminary 2015 Spring Juvenile Survival Estimates Through Snake/Columbia River Dams Dismal
  105. Aug 28, 2015 - Al Jazeera: Salmon in Idaho Becoming Endangered
  106. Aug 03, 2015 - Seattle Times Guest Opinion: Dead Salmon, climate change and Northwest dams
  107. Aug 03, 2015 - Idaho Statesman Guest Opinion: Sockeye death toll a predictable disaster
  108. Jul 17, 2015 - Idaho Statesman: Biologists bring sockeye into Idaho on trucks to get them out of hot water
  109. Jun 23, 2015 - FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Today's Federal Court Hearing on Salmon
  110. Jun 22, 2015 - Seattle Times: Columbia River Basin plan to restore fish runs faces legal challenge
  111. Jun 09, 2015 - For Immediate Release: NOAA’s new plan for Snake River Sockeye falls short
  112. Dec 10, 2014 - High Country News: The great salmon compromise
  113. Aug 05, 2014 - Seattle Times letters to the editor: Salmon recovery: Don’t cut back on dam spills
  114. Jul 28, 2014 - Idaho Statesman's Rocky Barker: Renewing Idaho's wild salmon and wild rivers
  115. Jul 21, 2014 - Idaho Statesman: Sockeye draft recovery plan shows just how far away success is
  116. Jun 26, 2014 - Daily Astorian Editorial: Drug addiction and salmon policy
  117. Jun 20, 2014 - Los Angeles Times: Groups sue U.S. agencies, saying plan to protect salmon falls short
  118. Jun 20, 2014 - Lewiston Morning Tribune: Federal salmon plan contested again
  119. Jun 17, 2014 - For immediate release: Federal agencies squander chance for progress on Northwest salmon
  120. Jun 04, 2014 - The Fight for a Lawful Salmon Plan
  121. Jun 04, 2014 - Columbia Basin Bulletin: Groups Challenge In Ninth Circuit BPA’s Record Of Decision
  122. Mar 28, 2014 - Lewiston Morning Tribune: Corps to kill fish-noshing birds
  123. Mar 25, 2014 - Science panel’s review provides pathway to expanded spill test
  124. Mar 05, 2014 - House bill aims to restore science and common sense to federal salmon efforts: Salmon advocates applaud introduction of study legislation
  125. Feb 09, 2014 - Daily Astorian: Editorial: Latest salmon deal is disappointing (again)
  126. Feb 05, 2014 - Spill test is positive response to climate change
  127. Jan 27, 2014 - Idaho Statesman Guest Opinion: Idaho and its chinook deserve an expansion of water spills
  128. Jan 24, 2014 - Lewiston Tribune Editorial: Feds’ predictable fish plan keeps careers going
  129. Jan 23, 2014 - Idaho Stateman: Salmon, dams will head back to court
  130. Jan 20, 2014 - Lewiston Tribune: Latest NOAA opinion on salmon goes back to well
  131. Jan 17, 2014 - Press Release: Feds squander chance for progress on salmon
  132. Jan 15, 2014 - Scientists to Obama Administration: "New" Federal Salmon Plan a Bust
  133. Dec 15, 2013 - Spokesman-Review Guest Opinion: Columbia River plan fails to protect salmon
  134. Dec 02, 2013 - Oregonian Guest Opinion: Federal Government doing too little to help Columbia salmon
  135. Sep 25, 2013 - Tacoma News Tribune Op-Ed: There's good news and bad news for Northwest's salmon
  136. Sep 18, 2013 - LMT Editorial: Feds' fifth fish recovery plan invites a sixth
  137. Sep 17, 2013 - Idaho Statesman: Feds reject potential way to help salmon
  138. Sep 15, 2013 - Daily Astorian Editorial: Same old story (2)
  139. Sep 12, 2013 - Lewiston Morning Tribune: Feds deal blow to Nez Perce Tribe, salmon advocates (2)
  140. Jul 16, 2013 - Twenty-one groups and business associations ask Bonneville Power Administration to reverse course on planned rollbacks of salmon spill
  141. Jun 22, 2013 - A Brief History of “spill”
  142. May 22, 2013 - All Scientists Are Saying Is…"Give (More) Spill A Chance."
Save Our wild Salmon is a diverse, nationwide coalition working together to restore wild salmon and steelhead to the rivers, streams and marine waters of the Pacific Northwest for the benefit of our region's ecology, economy and culture.




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